Inadequate eating habits, as well as a low level of physical activity, influence adipose tissue deposition. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of central obesity in upper-secondary students and to determine the factors related to its occurrence. The survey included 309 participants, aged 16 to 18 years from Krakow (Poland). Anthropometric measurements were taken during the periodic assessment of students’ health status. An anonymous questionnaire was used to assess the nutritional and non-nutritional risk factors of participants. According to different methods of measurement, abdominal obesity (AO) was observed in 15.5% (WC—waist circumference), 10.7% (WHtR—waist to height ratio) or 21.7% (WHR—waist to hip ratio) participants. Abdominal obesity (WC) was significantly associated with family history of excess body weight and higher economic status of the family. The risk of AO (WC) was significantly lower among adolescents who declared higher physical activity. Boys who eat first breakfasts have lower AO risk according to WHtR interpretation. Abdominal obesity in gender group was related to the self-esteem of one’s own appearance according to WHtR and WC. Abdominal obesity was associated with the family environment and modifiable lifestyle factors and was dependent on gender.