The Doppler-assisted error provided by a low-precision microelectromechanical system (MEMS) strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) increases rapidly. Therefore, the bandwidth of the tracking loop for a global positioning system (GPS)/MEMS-SINS ultra-tight integration system is too narrow to track Doppler shift. GPS measurement error is correlated with the MEMS-SINS velocity error when the Doppler-assisted error exists, leading to tracking loop lock loss. The estimated precision of the integrated Kalman filter (IKF) also decreases. Even the integrated system becomes unstable. To solve this problem, an innovative GPS/MEMS-SINS ultra-tight integration scheme based on using high-precision carrier phase measurements as the IKF measurements is proposed in this study. By assisting the tracking loop with time-differenced carrier phase (TDCP) velocity, the carrier loop noise bandwidth and code correlator spacing are reduced. The tracking accuracies of the carrier and code are increased. The navigation accuracy of GPS/MEMS-SINS ultra-tight integration is further improved.