A copper sulfide nanoflakes-decorated carbon nanofragments-modified glassy carbon electrode (CuS-CNF/GCE) was fabricated for the electrocatalytic differentiation and determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). The physicochemical properties of the CuS-CNF were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic determination of HQ and CC over the CuS-CNF/GCE was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. An excellent detection limit and sensitivity of the CuS-CNF/GCE are obtained (0.293 µM and 0.259 µM) with a sensitivity of 184 nA µM−1 cm−2 and 208 nA µM−1 cm−2 (S/N=3) for HQ and CC, respectively. In addition, the CuS-CNF/GCE shows a selective identification of HQ and CC over potential interfering metal ions (Zn2+, Na+, K+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl−) and organic compounds (ascorbic acid, glucose), and a satisfactory recovery is also obtained in the spiked water samples. These results suggest that the CuS-CNF/GCE can be used as an efficient electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of co-existing environmental pollutants such as HQ and CC in water environments with high selectivity and acceptable reproducibility.