: Solute carrier family 7 member 11 (Slc7a11) is a cystine/glutamate xCT transporter that controls the production of pheomelanin pigment to change fur and skin color in animals. Previous studies have found that skin expression levels of Slc7a11 varied significantly with fur color in Rex rabbits. However, the molecular regulation mechanism of Slc7a11 in pigmentation is unknown. Here, rabbit melanocytes were first isolated and identified. The distribution and expression pattern of Slc7a11 was confirmed in skin from rabbits with different fur colors. Slc7a11 affected the expression of pigmentation related genes and thus affected melanogenesis. Meanwhile, Slc7a11 decreased melanocyte apoptosis, but inhibition of Slc7a11 enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, the POU2F1 protein was found to bind to the −713 to −703 bp region of Slc7a11 promoter to inhibit its activity in a dual-luciferase reporter and site-directed mutagenesis assay. This study reveals the function of the Slc7a11 in melanogenesis and provides in-depth analysis of the mechanism of fur pigmentation.