The extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs) act as pleiotropic molecules in tumors, where they activate pro-survival pathways leading to cell proliferation and migration, as well as modulate apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Given its central role as sensor of extracellular signals, ERK transduction system is widely exploited by cancer cells subjected to environmental stresses, such as chemotherapy and anti-tumor activity of the host immune system. Aggressive tumors have a tremendous ability to adapt and survive in stressing and unfavorable conditions. The simultaneous resistance to chemotherapy and immune system responses is common, and ERK signaling plays a key role in both types of resistance. In this review, we dissect the main ERK-dependent mechanisms and feedback circuitries that simultaneously determine chemoresistance and immune-resistance/immune-escape in cancer cells. We discuss the pros and cons of targeting ERK signaling to induce chemo-immune-sensitization in refractory tumors.