The effects of climate change and air pollution on health have become major topics of discussion and conducting an assessment on the vulnerabilities of climate change is essential to providing a solution for it. This study assesses human vulnerability to the health effects of climate change and ozone. We classified 27 detailed vulnerability indicators into eight categories and assessed the vulnerability of 249 jurisdictions in South Korea by applying the Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Situation method. The results indicated that metropolitan and major urban areas were more vulnerable than other areas. Furthermore, factors such as air pollution, meteorological conditions, a vulnerable environment, the distribution of disease, health/medical capacities, and air pollution control had a significant impact on vulnerability. A validity analysis was on the vulnerability assessment results and the number of new patients diagnosed with diseases associated with the cardiovascular system; the results indicated a 66.9% correlation, signifying a considerably high validity. The proposed method for assessing vulnerabilities in terms of the health effects of air pollution is objective and based on data; thus, it is expected to present a high degree of applicability. The results can also be a critical foundation upon which to establish health policies.