Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1)-derived peptide (AdP) has been developed as a cosmeceutical ingredient for skin anti-aging given its fibroblast-activating (FA) and melanocyte-inhibiting (MI) functions. However, a suitable strategy for the topical delivery of AdP was required due to its low-permeable properties. In this study, FA and MI domains of AdP (FA-AdP and MI-AdP, respectively) were determined by functional domain mapping, where the activities of several fragments of AdP on fibroblast and melanocyte were tested, and a hydrosol-based topical delivery system for these AdP fragments was prepared. The excipient composition of the hydrosol was optimized to maximize the viscosity and drying rate by using Box-Behnken design. The artificial skin deposition of FA-AdP-loaded hydrosol was evaluated using Keshary-Chien diffusion cells equipped with Strat-M membrane (STM). The quantification of the fluorescent dye-tagged FA-AdP in STM was carried out by near-infrared fluorescence imaging. The optimized hydrosol showed 127-fold higher peptide deposition in STM than free FA-AdP (p < 0.05). This work suggests that FA- and MI-AdP are active-domains for anti-wrinkle and whitening activities, respectively, and the hydrosol could be used as a promising cosmetic formulation for the delivery of AdPs to the skin.