We report on numerical modelling of three-dimensional lattice structures designed to provide phononic bandgaps. The examined lattice structures rely on two distinct mechanisms for bandgap formation: the destructive interference of elastic waves and internal resonance. Further to the effect of lattice type on the development of phononic bandgaps, we also present the effect of volume fraction, which enables the designer to control the frequency range over which the bandgaps exist. The bandgaps were identified from dispersion curves obtained using a finite element wave propagation modelling technique that provides high computational efficiency and high wave modelling accuracy. We show that lattice structures employing internal resonance can provide transmissibility reduction of longitudinal waves of up to −103 dB. Paired with the manufacturing freedom and material choice of additive manufacturing, the examined lattice structures can be tailored for use in wide-ranging applications including machine design, isolation and support platforms, metrology frames, aerospace and automobile applications, and biomedical devices.