IJMS, Vol. 20, Pages 2913: Mechanisms Underlying Spontaneous Action Potential Generation Induced by Catecholamine in Pulmonary Vein Cardiomyocytes: A Simulation Study (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Cardiomyocytes and myocardial sleeves dissociated from pulmonary veins (PVs) potentially generate ectopic automaticity in response to noradrenaline (NA), and thereby trigger atrial fibrillation. We developed a mathematical model of rat PV cardiomyocytes (PVC) based on experimental data that incorporates the microscopic framework of the local control theory of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which can generate rhythmic Ca2+ release (limit cycle revealed by the bifurcation analysis) when total Ca2+ within the cell increased. Ca2+ overload in SR increased resting Ca2+ efflux through the type II inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (InsP3R) as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs), which finally triggered massive Ca2+ release through activation of RyRs via local Ca2+ accumulation in the vicinity of RyRs. The new PVC model exhibited a resting potential of −68 mV. Under NA effects, repetitive Ca2+ release from SR triggered spontaneous action potentials (APs) by evoking transient depolarizations (TDs) through Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (APTDs). Marked and variable latencies initiating APTDs could be explained by the time courses of the α1- and β1-adrenergic influence on the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ content and random occurrences of spontaneous TD activating the first APTD. Positive and negative feedback relations were clarified under APTD generation.