Accurate classification of tropical tree species is critical for understanding forest habitat, biodiversity, forest composition, biomass, and the role of trees in climate variability through carbon uptake. The aim of this study is to establish an accurate classification procedure for tropical tree species, specifically testing the feasibility of WorldView-3 (WV-3) multispectral imagery for this task. The specific study site is a defined arboretum within a well-known tropical forest research location in Costa Rica (La Selva Biological Station). An object-based classification is the basis for the analysis to classify six selected tree species. A combination of pre-processed WV-3 bands were inputs to the classification, and an edge segmentation process defined multi-pixel-scale tree canopies. WorldView-3 bands in the Green, Red, Red Edge, and Near-Infrared 2, particularly when incorporated in two specialized vegetation indices, provide high discrimination among the selected species. Classification results yield an accuracy of 85.37%, with minimal errors of commission (7.89%) and omission (14.63%). Shadowing in the satellite imagery had a significant effect on segmentation accuracy (identifying single-species canopy tops) and on classification. The methodology presented provides a path to better characterization of tropical forest species distribution and overall composition for improving biomass studies in a tropical environment.