The aim of this study is to evaluate the application of the main hazardous waste management techniques in mining operations and in dumping sites being conscious of the inter-linkages and inter-compartment of the contaminated soils and sediments. For this purpose, a systematic review of the literature on the reduction or elimination of different potential toxic elements was carried out, focusing on As, Cd and Hg as main current contaminant agents. Selected techniques are feasible according to several European countries` directives, especially in Spain. In the case of arsenic, we verified that there exists a main line that is based on the use of iron minerals and its derivatives. It is important to determine its speciation since As (III) is more toxic and mobile than As (V). For cadmium (II), we observed a certain predominance of the use of biotic techniques, compared to a variety of others. Finally, in mercury case, treatments include a phytoremediation technique using Limnocharis flava and the use of a new natural adsorbent: a modified nanobiocomposite hydrogel. The use of biological treatments is increasingly being studied because they are environmentally friendly, efficient and highly viable in both process and energy terms. The study of techniques for the removal of potential toxic elements should be performed with a focus on the simultaneous removal of several metals, since in nature they do not appear in isolation. Moreover, we found that energy analysis constitutes a limiting factor in relation to the feasibility of these techniques.