Soil mineralogy is an important factor affecting chemical and physical processes in the soil. Most common minerals in soils—quartz, clay minerals and carbonates—present fundamental spectral features in the longwave infrared (LWIR) region. The current study presents a procedure for determining the soil mineralogy from the surface emissivity spectrum. Ground-based hyperspectral LWIR images of 90 Israeli soil samples were acquired with the Telops Hyper-Cam sensor, and the emissivity spectrum of each sample was calculated. Mineral-related emissivity features were identified and used to create indicants and indices to determine the content of quartz, clay minerals, and carbonates in the soil in a semi-quantitative manner—from more to less abundant minerals. The resultant mineral content was in good agreement with the mineralogy derived from chemical analyses.