This research aims to ascertain how, and to what extent, livelihood resilience influences migration decisions (to migrate or not to migrate) of people who live in vulnerable socio-ecological systems (SESs). To do so, first, the characteristics of different SESs are determined; secondly, livelihood resilience across the SESs are analysed; and finally, the influence of livelihood resilience on the ‘migration decision’ (i.e., to migrate or not to migrate) is explained. The explanation of migration is based on the patterns, location, purpose, scope, and extent of migration. This paper addresses these issues based on empirical evidence from five rural coastal communities in Bangladesh. Findings show that resilient people would like to stay put and the decision differs across SESs, for example, the majority of people living in salt-shrimp-dependent SESs intended to migrate in the future, whereas the majority of people living in rain-fed agriculture-dependent SESs preferred to not migrate. Thus, the ability to migrate is therefore not only dependent on economic capability but also on the socio-ecological context of the place in which people live.