Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus which is the leading causative agent of viral encephalitis in endemic regions. JEV NS3 is a component of the viral replicase complex and is a multifunctional protein. In this study, interleukin enhancer-binding factor 2 (ILF2) is identified as a novel cellular protein interacting with NS3 through co-immunoprecipitation assay and LC-MS/MS. The expression of ILF2 is decreased in JEV-infected human embryonic kidney (293T) cells. The knockdown of endogenous ILF2 by special short hairpin RNA (shRNA) positively regulates JEV propagation, whereas the overexpression of ILF2 results in a significantly reduced JEV genome synthesis. Further analysis revealed that the knockdown of ILF2 positively regulates viral replication by JEV replicon system studies. These results suggest that ILF2 may act as a potential antiviral agent against JEV infection.