Inhibitory interneurons make up around 10–20% of the total neuron population in the cerebral cortex. A hallmark of inhibitory interneurons is their remarkable diversity in terms of morphology, synaptic connectivity, electrophysiological and neurochemical properties. It is generally understood that there are three distinct and non-overlapping interneuron classes in the mouse neocortex, namely, parvalbumin-expressing, 5-HT3A receptor-expressing and somatostatin-expressing interneuron classes. Each class is, in turn, composed of a multitude of subclasses, resulting in a growing number of interneuron classes and subclasses. In this review, I will focus on the diversity of somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SOM+ INs) in the cerebral cortex and elucidate their function in cortical circuits. I will then discuss pathological consequences of a malfunctioning of SOM+ INs in neurological disorders such as major depressive disorder, and present future avenues in SOM research and brain pathologies.