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RSS FeedsIJMS, Vol. 20, Pages 2951: Phenolic Compounds and Ginsenosides in Ginseng Shoots and Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Capacities in LPS-Induced RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)

 
 

17 june 2019 12:03:56

 
IJMS, Vol. 20, Pages 2951: Phenolic Compounds and Ginsenosides in Ginseng Shoots and Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Capacities in LPS-Induced RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
 




We conducted this study for the first time to evaluate changes in the composition and contents of phenolic compounds and ginsenosides in ginseng shoot extracts (GSEs) prepared with different steaming times (2, 4, and 6 h) at 120 °C, as well as their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells). The results show that total phenol and flavonoid contents were both significantly higher in steamed versus raw GSEs, and the same trend was found for 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2′-azobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) scavenging capacities. Among the 18 ginsenosides quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the aid of pure standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in raw GSEs, whereas less-polar or rare ginsenosides appeared after steaming at 120 °C and increased with steaming time. Furthermore, steamed GSEs exhibited a greater ability to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells at the same concentration. Relative expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNAs were attenuated by the GSEs, probably due to the enrichment of less-polar ginsenosides and enhanced antioxidant activity in steamed GSEs. These findings, combined with correlation analysis, showed that less-polar ginsenosides were major contributors to the inhibition of the overproduction of various inflammatory factors, while the inhibitory effects of total phenols and total flavonoids, and their antioxidant abilities, are also important.


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49 viewsCategory: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology
 
IJMS, Vol. 20, Pages 2952: Diversity and Function of Somatostatin-Expressing Interneurons in the Cerebral Cortex (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
IJMS, Vol. 20, Pages 2950: TargetAntiAngio: A Sequence-Based Tool for the Prediction and Analysis of Anti-Angiogenic Peptides (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
 
 
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