The role of soil in the existential environmental problems of declining biodiversity, climate change, water and energy security, impacting on food security has highlighted the need to link the soil functions to ecosystem services. We describe and illustrate by a limited example, the concepts and assessment of soil’s capacity measured through its capability and condition as contributors to an overall soil security framework. The framework is based on the concepts of genosoils and phenosoils. The links to other notions, such as threats to soil and soil functions are made. The framework can be potentially applied elsewhere to quantify soil changes under natural processes and human activities.