In this paper, a soft fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor was constructed of a rubber strip, FBGs and steel plates, which exhibits the advantages of high precision and a small size. A series of FBGs was uniformly pasted on a flexible rubber strip which can monitor the slope deformation by measuring the bending deformation of the rubber strip. Most notably, this sensor can be used to monitor horizontal displacement in the subsurface of the slope model. The relationships among the bending angle of the rubber strip, the strain of the rubber strip, and the subsurface deformation of the slope model were established. In addition, the subsurface deformation of the slope model can be obtained by the FBG strain sensor monitoring. Since a rigid-flexible structure was formed by uniformly pasting a series of steel plates on the other side of the rubber strip, the sensitivity of the FBG strain sensor was improved to be 1.5425 nm/°. The measurement results verify that the FBG strain sensor shows good performance, and the model test results demonstrate that the FBG strain sensor can be used for monitoring the subsurface deformation of the slope model.