Rapid aerodynamic design and optimization is essential for the development of future turbomachinery. The objective of this work is to demonstrate a methodology from 1D mean-line-design to a full 3D aerodynamic optimization of the turbine stage using a parameterization strategy that requires few parameters. The methodology is tested by designing a highly loaded and efficient turbine for the Purdue Experimental Turbine Aerothermal Laboratory. This manuscript describes the entire design process including the 2D/3D parameterization strategy in detail. The objective of the design is to maximize the entropy definition of efficiency while simultaneously maximizing the stage loading. Optimal design trends are highlighted for both the stator and rotor for several turbine characteristics in terms of pitch-to-chord ratio as well as the blades metal and stagger angles. Additionally, a correction term is proposed for the Horlock efficiency equation to maximize the accuracy based on the measured blade kinetic losses. Finally, the design and performance of optimal profiles along the Pareto front are summarized, featuring the highest aerodynamic performance and stage loading.