Investigations on flaw responses can benefit the nondestructive testing of cylinders using line-focused transducers. In this work, the system function, the wave beam model, and a flaw scattering model are combined to develop an ultrasonic measurement model for line-focused transducers to predict flaw responses in cylindrical components. The system function is characterized using reference signals by developing an acoustic transfer function for line-focused transducers, which works at different distances for both planar and curved surfaces. The wave beams in cylindrical components are modeled using a multi-Gaussian beam model, where the effects of wave mode conversion and curvatures of cylinders are considered. Simulation results of wave beams are provided to analyze their propagation behaviors. The proposed ultrasonic measurement model is certified from good agreement between the experimental and predicted signals of side-drilled holes. This work provides guidance for evaluating the detection ability of line-focused transducers in cylindrical component testing applications.