Tissue engineering is gaining attention rapidly to replace and repair defective tissues in the human body after illnesses and accidents in different organs. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds have emerged as a potential alternative for cell regeneration and organ replacement. In this paper, porous membranes, based on nanofibrous chitosan (CS), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and graphene oxide (GO), were obtained via electrospinning methodology. Three different formulations were obtained varying GO content, being characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In vitro tests were carried out, consisting of hydrolytic degradation inside simulated biological fluid (SBF), and in vivo tests were carried out, where the material was implanted in Wistar rats’ subcutaneous tissue to determine its biocompatibility. The antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, and against Gram-negative Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, by contact of the electrospun nanofiber scaffolds above inoculum bacterial in Müeller Hinton agar with good inhibition only for scaffolds with the higher GO content (1.0%). The results confirmed good biocompatibility of the nanofibrous scaffolds after in vivo tests in Wistar rats, which evidences its high potential in applications of tissue regeneration.