A healthy diet improves life expectancy and helps to prevent common chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The mechanisms driving these effects are not fully understood, but are likely to involve epigenetics. Epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression, maintaining the DNA sequence, and therefore the full genomic information inherited from our parents, unchanged. An interesting feature of epigenetic changes lies in their dynamic nature and reversibility. Accordingly, they are susceptible to correction through targeted interventions. Here we will review the evidence supporting a role for nutritional factors in mediating metabolic disease risk through DNA methylation changes. Special emphasis will be placed on the potential of using DNA methylation traits as biomarkers to predict risk of obesity and T2D as well as on their response to dietary and pharmacological (epi-drug) interventions.