Intermittent use of a single antiretroviral agent in the presence of a replicating virus could potentially increase the development of antiviral resistance. The pericoital, before-and-after sex, dosing regimen used in the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 tenofovir gel trial meant that women who were infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) were exposed intermittently to tenofovir during their participation. The impact of this dosing regimen on HBV resistance was assessed by amplification of the HBV polymerase region from 37 stored plasma samples of women who were HBV surface antigen positive. All samples belonged to HBV genotype A. None of the known tenofovir resistance mutations (M240V/I, L180M, A194T, V214A, N238T) were identified in any individuals. While it is reassuring that no resistance mutations were found among women using topical tenofovir, the rapidly expanding access to oral tenofovir-containing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), with higher systemic exposure to the drug, makes monitoring for potential HBV drug resistance important.