Nutrients, Vol. 11, Pages 1382: Bridging the Reciprocal Gap between Sleep and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Review of the Evidence, Potential Mechanisms, Implications, and Directions for Future Work (Nutrients)
A substantial burden of disease and mortality globally is attributable to both sleep disruption and low intakes of fruit and vegetable (FV) and there is increasing mechanistic and epidemiological evidence to support a reciprocal relationship between the two. This review provides an overview of experimental and observational studies assessing the relations between sleep and FV consumption from 52 human adult studies. Experimental studies are currently limited and show inconsistent results. Observational studies support a non-linear association with adults sleeping the recommended 7–9 hours/day having the highest intakes of FV. The potential mechanisms linking sleep and FV consumption are highlighted. Disrupted sleep influences FV consumption through homeostatic and non-homeostatic mechanisms. Conversely, FV consumption may influence sleep through polyphenol content via several potential pathways. Few human experimental studies have examined the effects of FV items and their polyphenols on sleep and there is a need for more studies to address this. An appreciation of the relationship between sleep and FV consumption may help optimize sleep and FV consumption and may reduce the burden of chronic diseases. This review provides implications for public health and directions for future work.