Sperm motility is the most important parameter involved in the fertilization process and it is strictly required for reproductive success. Although sperm movements are essential for the physiologic fertilization process, the data, deriving from studies focused on the research of altered cell pathways involved in asthenozoospermia, offer only limited information about the molecular mechanism underlying sperm motility. The aim of this study was to identify proteins involved in human sperm motility deficiency by using label-free mass-spectrometry liquid chromatography (LC−MS/MS). For this purpose, we selected sperm samples with three different classes of progressive motility: low, medium (asthenozoospermic samples) and high (normozoospermic samples). We found that several differential expressed proteins in asthenozoospermic samples were related to energetic metabolism, suggesting an interesting link between bioenergetics pathways and the regulation of sperm motility, necessary for the flagellum movement. Therefore, our results provide strong evidence that mass spectrometry-based proteomics represents an integrated approach to detect novel biochemical markers of sperm motility and quality with diagnostic relevance for male infertility and unravel the molecular etiology of idiopathic cases.