IJMS, Vol. 20, Pages 2999: Influence of Acute Exercise on DNA Repair and PARP Activity before and after Irradiation in Lymphocytes from Trained and Untrained Individuals (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Several studies indicate that acute exercise induces DNA damage, whereas regular exercise increases DNA repair kinetics. Although the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood, the induction of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) during acute exhaustive exercise due to metabolic processes might be responsible for the observed DNA damage, while an adaptive increase in antioxidant capacity due to regular physical activity seems to play an important protective role. However, the protective effect of physical activity on exogenously induced DNA damage in human immune cells has been poorly investigated. We asked the question whether individuals with a high aerobic capacity would have an enhanced response to radiation-induced DNA damage. Immune cells are highly sensitive to radiation and exercise affects lymphocyte dynamics and immune function. Therefore, we measured endogenous and radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from endurance-trained (maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise V’O2max > 55 mL/min/kg) and untrained (V’O2max < 45 mL/min/kg) young healthy male volunteers before and after exhaustive exercise. Our results indicate that: (i) acute exercise induces DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes only in untrained individuals, (ii) following acute exercise, trained individuals repaired radiation-induced DNA strand breaks faster than untrained individuals, and (iii) trained subjects retained a higher level of radiation-induced PARP1 activity after acute exercise. The results of the present study indicate that increased aerobic fitness can protect immune cells against radiation-induced DNA strand breaks.