IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2231: Relationship between Parental Socialization, Emotional Symptoms, and Academic Performance during Adolescence: The Influence of Parents` and Teenagers` Gender (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Scientific interest in students’ emotional and psychosocial experiences has been increasing in the last years due to their influence on students’ learning processes and academic performance. The present manuscript tries to go further in the study of the relationship between perceived parenting socialization and academic performance by analyzing not only their direct effects, but also by testing their indirect influence through other variables such as students’ psychological and school maladjustment, especially focusing on gender differences (both of students and parents). The sample comprised 823 students (416 males and 407 females) from the Basque Country (Spain), with ages ranging between 12 and 16 years (M = 13.7, SD = 1.2). Students completed a sociodemographic data form, the PARQ-Control questionnaire, and the BASC-S3 test. Teachers answered an ad hoc question on each student’s academic performance. The data showed that, both for males and females, the same structure of parent–teenager relationship predicted teenagers’ academic performance, via psychological and school maladjustment. However, the intensity of the relationship between parental acceptance and teenagers’ results in all the other factors differed depending on teenagers’ gender. Fathers’ influence was greater in males, and mothers’ influence was higher in females. This study is considered a starting point for a theoretical model predicting academic performance and psychological and school maladjustment among teenagers.