Land surface deformation in metropolitan areas, which can cause varying degrees of hazard to both human lives and to properties, has been documented for decades in cities worldwide. Xuzhou, is one of the most important energy and industrial bases in eastern China, and has experienced significant land subsidence due to both excessive extraction of karst underground water and exploitation of mineral resources in recent decades. Furthermore, Xuzhou has recently undergone rapid urbanization in terms of urban expansion and underground construction, which could induce additional pressure on the urban land surface. However, most previous research on land surface deformation in the Xuzhou urban areas has been conducted based on traditional ground-based deformation monitoring techniques with sparse measurements. Little is known about the regional spatiotemporal behavior of land surface displacement in Xuzhou. In this study, a detailed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series analysis was performed to characterize the spatial pattern and temporal evolution of land surface deformation in central areas of Xuzhou during 2015–2018. A method based on principal component analysis was adopted to correct artifacts in the InSAR signal. Results showed the correction strategy markedly reduced the discrepancy between global navigation satellite systems and InSAR measurements. Noticeable land subsidence (−5 to −41 mm/yr) was revealed widely within the Xuzhou urban areas, particularly along subway lines under construction, newly developed districts, and in old coal goafs. Remarkable consistent land uplift (up to +25 mm/yr) was found to have significantly affected two long narrow areas within the old goafs since 2015. The possible principal influencing factors contributing to the land surface displacements such as subway tunneling, building construction, mining, underground water levels and geological conditions are then discussed.