Employment turnover among doctors at healthcare facilities negatively influences healthcare provision, facility management, and staffing. To support institutional and policy change, turnover intentions and its related factors of employed doctors were evaluated with 2016 Korean Physician Survey (n = 2719) in Korea. About 30.5% intended a turnover within two years. The significant related factors by multivariate analysis via binary logistic regression were gender, age, specialty, type of facility, length of current employment, usual number of hours worked per week, and income satisfaction. The odds of reporting turnover intention are 46.2% greater for males than females and 55.5% greater for aged 30–39 than aged 40–49. The odds are 28.9% smaller for support medicine than internal medicine. The odds are 224.2% greater for those employed at tertiary hospitals than those employed at clinics, but the odds are 34.0% smaller for convalescent hospital employment than general hospital employment. The number of years of current employment and income satisfaction each negatively, and the number of hours worked per week positively, related to turnover intentions. Fair compensation and performance evaluation systems and reasonable working hours should be guaranteed at healthcare facilities to reduce turnover, and institutional and policy measures should be implemented to improve workplace environmental quality.