Exosomes and other classes of extracellular vesicles (EVs) have gained interest due to their role in cell-to-cell communication. Knowledge of the molecular content of EVs may provide important information on features of parental cells and mechanisms of cross-talk between cells. To study functions of EVs it is essential to know their composition, that includes proteins, nucleic acids, and other classes biomolecules. The metabolome, set of molecules the most directly related to the cell phenotype, is the least researched component of EVs. However, the metabolome of EVs circulating in human blood and other bio-fluids is of particular interest because of its potential diagnostic value in cancer and other health conditions. On the other hand, the metabolome of EVs released to culture media in controlled conditions in vitro could shed light on important aspects of communication between cells in model systems. This paper summarizes the most common approaches implemented in EV metabolomics and integrates currently available data on the composition of the metabolome of EVs obtained in different models with particular focus on human body fluids and cancer cells.