Buckwheat is an important functional food material with high nutritional value. However, it is still a difficult task for the taxonomy studies of wild buckwheat that are only based on morphology. In order to demonstrate the most efficient DNA barcode in the phylogenetic research of buckwheat, promote the investigation of wild buckwheat, and also reveal the phylogenetic relationship between Fagopyrum species, psbE-psbL and ndhA intron were validated here, which previously have been proved to be promising DNA barcode candidates for phylogenetic studies in genera Fagopyrum. Meanwhile, ndhA intron + psbE-psbL and matK + psbE-psbL could distinguish the relationship between species clearly. Combining the results of morphology and molecular markers, we suggested the buckwheat species should be divided into two subgroups, one subgroup consisted of F. tataricum, F. esculentum, F. cymosum and its related wild species, and the other subgroup included other wild buckwheat species. Our results could fulfill molecular markers of taxonomy research in genera Fagopyrum, promote wild buckwheat species identification, and assist in the use of wild buckwheat resources in the future. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship revealed here could provide valuable information for molecular breeding of buckwheat and provide reference for inter-species hybridization.