Biofouling is a significant maritime problem because the growth of fouling organisms on the hulls of ships leads to very high economic losses every year. Inspired by the soft skins of dolphins, we prepared graphene oxide/silicone rubber composite membranes in this study. These membranes have low surface free energies and adjustable elastic moduli, which are beneficial for preventing biofouling. Diatom attachment studies under static conditions revealed that color has no effect on antifouling behavior, whereas the studies under hydrodynamic conditions revealed that the combined effects of color and elastic modulus determine the antifouling performance. The experimental results are in accordance with the “harmonic motion effect” theory proposed by us, and we also provide a supplement to the theory in this paper. On the basis of the diatom attachment test results, the membrane with 0.36 wt % of graphene oxide showed excellent antifouling performance, and is promising in practical applications. The results confirmed that the graphene oxide and graphene have similar effect to enhance silicone rubber antifouling performance. This study provides important insight for the design of new antifouling coatings; specifically, it indicates that lighter colors and low Young’s moduli provide superior performance. In addition, this study provides a reference for the application of graphene oxide as fillers to enhance the composite antifouling performance.