This paper analyzes the factorial and predictive validity of a Spanish adaptation of the College Persistence Questionnaire (SCPQ) on the retention of first year students (FYS) at university. The participants were 490 FYS from two public universities in Southern Europe (Spain). Factorial analysis of the SCPQ (χ2/gl = 1.66, CFI = 0.92, NNFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.04) showed six reliable dimensions, similar to those found in the original study: Academic Integration, Social Integration, Supportive Services Satisfaction, Academic Conscientiousness, Degree Commitment and Institutional Commitment. Logistic regression showed that institutional commitment significantly predicted FYS’ permanence. The results support SCPQ’s validity as an adequate and useful tool for assessing FYS’ academic experiences involved in student retention.