Bee venom (BV) has a long history of being used in traditional Korean medicine to relieve pain. Here, we investigated the effect of BV-derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2), a major component of BV, on peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was performed in Sprague Dawley rats to induce neuropathic pain, and paw withdrawal thresholds were measured using von Frey test. Mechanical allodynia, the representative symptom of neuropathic pain, was manifested following SNL and persisted for several weeks. The repetitive bvPLA2 treatment (0.2 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for two days significantly relieved the SNL-induced mechanical allodynia. The antiallodynic effect of bvPLA2 was blocked by spinal pretreatment with α1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin (30 μg, i.t.) but not with α2-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan (50 μg, i.t.). Also, the spinal application of α1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (50 μg, i.t.) reduced mechanical allodynia. These results indicate that bvPLA2 could relieve nerve injury-induced neuropathic mechanical allodynia through the activation of spinal α1-adrenergic receptors.