Plum pomace, an agro-industrial waste product has received attention due to the worldwide popularity of plums. During convection, the content of flavan-3-ols decrease, except drying at 90 °C, whereas the content of i.e. chlorogenic, 3-p- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, quercetin rutinoside, and galactoside was observed to increase along with the increase in process temperature. The highest content of all identified polyphenols was found in plum pomace powders obtained using a combination of convective at 90 °C and microwave vacuum drying (MVD) at 120 W, whereas the highest retention of the group consisted of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins was noted when CD 70 °C/MVD 120 W was used, pointing to a strong influence of the type of polyphenols on their changes caused by drying. The correlations between TEAC ABTS and the sum of flavonoids (r = 0.634) and anthocyanins (r = 0.704) were established. The multiple regression analysis showed that polyphenol content was more strongly affected by drying time than by maximum temperature, whereas antioxidant capacity was more influenced by maximum temperature of sample than by drying time.