Glucose is one of the most important sources of carbon across all life. Glucose starvation is a key stress relevant to all eukaryotic cells. Glucose starvation responses have important implications in diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. In yeast, glucose starvation causes rapid and dramatic effects on the synthesis of proteins (mRNA translation). Response to glucose deficiency targets the initiation phase of translation by different mechanisms and with diverse dynamics. Concomitantly, translationally repressed mRNAs and components of the protein synthesis machinery may enter a variety of cytoplasmic foci, which also form with variable kinetics and may store or degrade mRNA. Much progress has been made in understanding these processes in the last decade, including with the use of high-throughput/omics methods of RNA and RNA:protein detection. This review dissects the current knowledge of yeast reactions to glucose starvation systematized by the stage of translation initiation, with the focus on rapid responses. We provide parallels to mechanisms found in higher eukaryotes, such as metazoans, for the most critical responses, and point out major remaining gaps in knowledge and possible future directions of research on translational responses to glucose starvation.