Guided bone regeneration is a common dental implant treatment where a barrier membrane (BM) is used between epithelial tissue and bone or bone graft to prevent the invasion of the fast-proliferating epithelial cells into the defect site to be able to preserve a space for infiltration of slower-growing bone cells into the periodontal defect site. In this study, a bilayer polycaprolactone (PCL) BM was developed by combining electrospinning and emulsion templating techniques. First, a 250 µm thick polymerised high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) made of photocurable PCL was manufactured and treated with air plasma, which was shown to enhance the cellular infiltration. Then, four solvent compositions were investigated to find the best composition for electrospinning a nanofibrous PCL barrier layer on PCL polyHIPE. The biocompatibility and the barrier properties of the electrospun layer were demonstrated over four weeks in vitro by histological staining. Following in vitro assessment of cell viability and cell migration, cell infiltration and the potential of PCL polyHIPE for supporting blood vessel ingrowth were further investigated using an ex-ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Our results demonstrated that the nanofibrous PCL electrospun layer was capable of limiting cell infiltration for at least four weeks, while PCL polyHIPE supported cell infiltration, calcium and mineral deposition of bone cells, and blood vessel ingrowth through pores.