The digital divide has loomed as a sustainable development issue for over two decades and there has been much research in terms of efforts to measure the digital divide from different dimensions and scales. Drawing on spatial agglomeration analysis and multiple linear regression, this paper aims to reveal the spatiotemporal pattern of the prefectural digital divide in China and its determinants. The results show that there is a significant prefectural digital divide in China that is characterized by a decline of ICT development index (IDI) values from the east to the west as well as from core cities to more peripheral ones. Cities with high IDI values are mainly concentrated in large metropolitan areas in eastern China, whereas cities with low values tend to concentrate in poverty stricken regions in central and western China. However, the digital divide has been characterized by a reduction from 2001 to 2015. The results also show that both economic and educational factors have significant influences on the prefectural digital divide in China. During the early stages, the percentage of university students, urban residential income, and the urbanization rate were key factors. However, after 2010, the adult literacy rate and rural residential income determined the digital divide.