Because of its ecological characteristics, the Caxiuanã National Forest (FLONA) is a potential area of arbovirus circulation. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of arbovirus transmission cycles at FLONA de Caxiuanã. Five field trips were performed to capture mosquitoes and sylvatic vertebrates. For these vertebrates, we attempted viral isolation by cell monolayer inoculation from blood, and hemagglutination inhibition and further seroneutralization assays from sera. For mosquitoes, we performed tests of viral genome detection. A total of 338 vertebrates were captured, and the greatest representative was birds (251/74.26%). A total of 16,725 mosquitoes were captured, distributed among 56 species. There were no viruses isolated by newborn mouse inoculation. Among birds, antibodies against Ilheus virus were the most prevalent. Catu virus, Caraparu virus, and Mucambo virus were the most prevalent among mammals and reptiles. Fragments of Mucambo virus, Ilheus virus, Bussuquara virus, and Rocio virus genome were detected in a pool of mosquito samples. These results of the study suggest the occurrence of arbovirus transmission cycles in the FLONA of Caxiuanã. The proximity of human populations with elements, involved in transmission cycles, makes surveillance necessary in this population to avoid dispersion of arboviruses to naïve locations.