Adipose tissue is traditionally categorized into white and brown relating to their function and morphology. The classical white adipose tissue builds up energy in the form of triglycerides and is useful for preventing fatigue during periods of low caloric intake and the brown adipose tissue more energetically active, with a greater number of mitochondria and energy production in the form of heat. Since adult humans possess significant amounts of active brown fat depots and its mass inversely correlates with adiposity, brown fat might play an important role in human obesity and energy homeostasis. New evidence suggests two types of thermogenic adipocytes with distinct developmental and anatomical features: classical brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes. Beige adipocyte has recently attracted special interest because of its ability to dissipate energy and the possible ability to differentiate themselves from white adipocytes. The presence of brown and beige adipocyte in human adults has acquired attention as a possible therapeutic intervention for metabolic diseases. Importantly, adult human brown appears to be mainly composed of beige-like adipocytes, making this cell type an attractive therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. Because many epigenetics changes can affect beige adipocyte differentiation from adipose progenitor cells, the knowledge of the circumstances that affect the development of beige adipocyte cells may be important to new pathways in the treatment of metabolic diseases. New molecules have emerged as possible therapeutic targets, which through the impulse to develop beige adipocytes can be useful for clinical studies. In this review will discuss some recent observations arising from the unique physiological capacity of these cells and their possible role as ways to treat obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2.