A method has been developed for the separation and quantification of terpenic compounds typically used as markers in the chemical characterization of resins based on capillary liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. The sample treatment, separation and detection conditions have been optimized in order to analyze compounds of different polarities and volatilities in a single chromatographic run. The monoterpene limonene and the triterpenes lupeol, lupenone, β-amyrin, and α-amyrin have been selected as model compounds. The proposed method provides linear responses and precision (expressed as relative standard deviations) of 0.6% to 17%, within the 0.5–10.0 µg mL−1 concentration interval; the limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were 0.1–0.25 µg mL−1 and 0.4–0.8 µg mL−1, respectively. The method has been applied to the quantification of the target compounds in microsamples. The reliability of the proposed conditions has been tested by analyzing three resins, white copal, copal in tears, and ocote tree resin. Percentages of the triterpenes in the range 0.010% to 0.16% were measured using sample amounts of 10–15 mg, whereas the most abundant compound limonene (≥0.93%) could be determined using 1 mg portions of the resins. The proposed method can be considered complementary to existing protocols aimed at establishing the chemical fingerprint of these kinds of samples.