Skeletal muscle atrophy is one of the major symptoms of cancer cachexia. Garlic (Allium sativum), one of the world’s most commonly used and versatile herbs, has been employed for the prevention and treatment of diverse diseases for centuries. In the present study, we found that ajoene, a sulfur compound found in crushed garlic, exhibits protective effects against muscle atrophy. Using CT26 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice, we demonstrate in vivo that ajoene extract alleviated muscle degradation by decreasing not only myokines secretion but also janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) and SMADs/forkhead box (FoxO) signaling pathways, thereby suppressing muscle-specific E3 ligases. In mouse skeletal myoblasts, Z-ajoene enhanced myogenesis as evidenced by increased expression of myogenic markers via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. In mature myotubes, Z-ajoene protected against muscle protein degradation induced by conditioned media from CT26 colon carcinoma cells, by suppressing expression of muscle specific E3 ligases and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation which contribute to muscle atrophy. Moreover, Z-ajoene treatment improved myofiber formation via stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. These findings suggest that ajoene extract and Z-ajoene can attenuate skeletal muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia through suppressing inflammatory responses and the muscle wasting as well as by promoting muscle protein synthesis.