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RSS FeedsIJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 4605: Urinary Dialkylphosphate Metabolite Levels in US Adults--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008 (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)

 
 

20 november 2019 15:00:40

 
IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 4605: Urinary Dialkylphosphate Metabolite Levels in US Adults--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008 (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
 




Background: Urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites are considered to be a proxy of the cumulative exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. We analyzed the urinary levels of six dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in US adults, to assess the factors associated with levels of urinary metabolites, and observe the time trends. Methods: We analyzed the combined urinary levels of Dimethylphosphate (DMP), Diethylphosphate (DEP), Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), Diethylthiophosphate (DETP), Dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), and Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 and 2008. Results: Increased age and female gender were positively associated with combined levels of urinary DAP metabolites; BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, BMI > 25 kg/m2, current smoking, and later survey year were inversely associated with combined levels of DAP metabolites. Among those with at least one detectable DAP in their urine, the mean levels decreased starting in 2001, but stayed relatively stable through 2008. Although the maximum combined urinary DAP level was highest in 1999–2000, throughout all years, we observed extremely high levels of exposure for subgroups of individuals. Conclusion: Despite the fact that organophosphorus pesticides were banned for residential use in the US in 2006, there are still opportunities for exposure in the general population. The average urinary DAP levels have decreased over time; however, the decline appears to have plateaued in recent years, and there remains highly exposed individuals.


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36 viewsCategory: Medicine, Pathology, Toxicology
 
IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 4607: Vitamin D Deficiency and Unclear Abdominal Pain in Patients from Low- and Middle-Income Countries (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 4606: Concentration of Healthcare Resources in China: The Spatial-Temporal Evolution and Its Spatial Drivers (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
 
 
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