Carbon nanomaterials in the form of quantum dots have a high potential due to their luminescent properties and low cytotoxicity which allows their use in optical probes for use in bioimaging and biodetection. In this article, we present a novel type of nanomaterials and their obtainment method under microwave-assisted conditions using poly(L-lysine) as a raw material. The ready products were characterized over their chemical structure, pH-dependent fluorescence properties and cytotoxicity on human dermal fibroblasts. Moreover, their antioxidant activity as well as ability to biologically active molecules (vitamins) and heavy metal ions detection was evaluated. The results confirmed the obtainment of biocompatible nanomaterials with advanced properties and good water solubility according to sustained development principles.