A method is proposed for the production of downscaled soil moisture active passive (SMAP) soil moisture (SM) data by combining optical/infrared data with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data based on the random forest (RF) model. The method leverages the sensitivity of active microwaves to surface SM and the triangle/trapezium feature space among vegetation indexes (VIs), land surface temperature (LST), and SM. First, five RF architectures (RF1–RF5) were trained and tested at 9 km. Second, a comparison was performed for RF1–RF5, and were evaluated against in situ SM measurements. Third, two SMAP-Sentinel active–passive SM products were compared at 3 km and 1 km using in situ SM measurements. Fourth, the RF5 model simulations were compared with the SMAP L2_SM_SP product based on the optional algorithm at 3 km and 1 km resolutions. The results showed that the downscaled SM based on the synergistic use of optical/infrared data and the backscatter at vertical–vertical (VV) polarization was feasible in semi-arid areas with relatively low vegetation cover. The RF5 model with backscatter and more parameters from optical/infrared data performed best among the five RF models and was satisfactory at both 3 km and 1 km. Compared with L2_SM_SP, RF5 was more superior at 1 km. The input variables in decreasing order of importance were backscatter, LST, VIs, and topographic factors over the entire study area. The low vegetation cover conditions probably amplified the importance of the backscatter and LST. A sufficient number of VIs can enhance the adaptability of RF models to different vegetation conditions.