How cells utilize nutrients to produce the ATP needed for bioenergetic homeostasis has been well-characterized. What is less well-studied is how resting cells metabolically shift from an ATP-producing catabolic metabolism to a metabolism that supports anabolic growth. In metazoan organisms, the discovery of growth factors and the ability of their receptors to induce new transcription and translation led to the hypothesis that the bioenergetic and synthetic demands of cell growth were primarily met through the replacement of nutrients consumed during net macromolecular synthesis, a demand-based system of nutrient uptake. Recent data have challenged this hypothesis. Instead, there is increasing evidence that cellular nutrient uptake is a push system. Growth factor signaling has been linked to direct stimulation of nutrient uptake. The ability of growth factor signaling to increase the uptake of glucose, lipids, and amino acids to levels that exceed a cell`s bioenergetic and synthetic needs has been documented in a wide variety of settings. In some tissues, this leads to the storage of the excess nutrients in the form of glycogen or fat. In others, the excess is secreted as lactate and certain nonessential amino acids. When growth factor signaling stimulates nutrient uptake to levels that exceed a cell`s bioenergetic needs, adaptive changes in intermediate metabolism lead to the production of anabolic precursors that fuel the net synthesis of protein, lipids, and nucleic acids. Through the increased production of these precursors, growth factor signaling provides a supply-side stimulation of cell growth and proliferation.