Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a potent hepatotoxin, but a few studies suggested that it might also induce nephrotoxicity. However, nephrotoxicity induced by prolonged oral exposure to MC-LR is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential influence of MC-LR on the kidney in mice following chronic exposure to MC-LR. In this study, we evaluated the nephrotoxicity of MC-LR in mice drinking water at different concentrations (1, 30, 60, 90, and 120 μg/L) for 6 months for the first time. The results showed that the kidney weights and the kidney indexes of mice were not altered in the MC-LR treated mice, compared with the control group. In addition, the renal function indicators revealed that the serum creatinine (SCr) levels were not significant changes after exposure to MC-LR. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were markedly decreased after exposure to 90 and 120μg/L MC-LR for 3 months. The BUN levels were lower than that of the control group after exposure to 120μg/L MC-LR for 6 months. The histopathological investigation revealed enlarged renal corpuscles, widened of kidney tubules, and lymphocyte infiltration in the interstitial tissue and the renal pelvis after exposure to 60, 90, and 120 μg/L MC-LR. Consequently, our results suggested that long-term exposure to MC-LR might be one important risk of kidney injury, which will provide important clues for the prevention of renal impairment.