Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in pathophysiological damage that can manifest as both acute and chronic neurological deficits. In an attempt to repair and reconnect disrupted circuits to compensate for loss of afferent and efferent connections, maladaptive circuitry is created and contributes to neurological deficits, including post-concussive symptoms. The TBI-induced pathology physically and metabolically changes the structure and function of neurons associated with behaviorally relevant circuit function. Complex neurological processing is governed, in part, by circuitry mediated by primary and modulatory neurotransmitter systems, where signaling is disrupted acutely and chronically after injury, and therefore serves as a primary target for treatment. Monitoring of neurotransmitter signaling in experimental models with technology empowered with improved temporal and spatial resolution is capable of recording in vivo extracellular neurotransmitter signaling in behaviorally relevant circuits. Here, we review preclinical evidence in TBI literature that implicates the role of neurotransmitter changes mediating circuit function that contributes to neurological deficits in the post-acute and chronic phases and methods developed for in vivo neurochemical monitoring. Coupling TBI models demonstrating chronic behavioral deficits with in vivo technologies capable of real-time monitoring of neurotransmitters provides an innovative approach to directly quantify and characterize neurotransmitter signaling as a universal consequence of TBI and the direct influence of pharmacological approaches on both behavior and signaling.