A rapid and precise large-scale agricultural disaster survey is a basis for agricultural disaster relief and insurance but is labor-intensive and time-consuming. This study applies Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) images through deep-learning image processing to estimate the rice lodging in paddies over a large area. This study establishes an image semantic segmentation model employing two neural network architectures, FCN-AlexNet, and SegNet, whose effects are explored in the interpretation of various object sizes and computation efficiency. Commercial UAVs imaging rice paddies in high-resolution visible images are used to calculate three vegetation indicators to improve the applicability of visible images. The proposed model was trained and tested on a set of UAV images in 2017 and was validated on a set of UAV images in 2019. For the identification of rice lodging on the 2017 UAV images, the F1-score reaches 0.80 and 0.79 for FCN-AlexNet and SegNet, respectively. The F1-score of FCN-AlexNet using RGB + ExGR combination also reaches 0.78 in the 2019 images for validation. The proposed model adopting semantic segmentation networks is proven to have better efficiency, approximately 10 to 15 times faster, and a lower misinterpretation rate than that of the maximum likelihood method.