The effects of two different processing methods on the volatile components of candied kumquats were investigated via headspace–gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (HS–GC–IMS). The characteristic volatile fingerprints of fresh kumquats (FKs), vacuum sugaring osmosis combined with hot-air drying kumquats (VS-ADKs), and atmospheric pressure sugaring osmosis combined with hot-air drying kumquats (AS-ADKs) were established using 3D topographic plots. From the fingerprints, 40 signal peaks for 22 compounds were confirmed and quantified in all types of kumquats, namely, two terpenes, four esters, seven aldehydes, three ketones, and six alcohols. 3-Pentanone was identified as the major component of FKs; followed by 1-hexanol and the Z-3-hexen-1-ol dimer. The hexanal dimer, 2-hexen-1-ol, and the ethyl acetate dimer were the major markers of VS-ADKs. Benzaldehyde and furfurol were the prominent constituent parts of AS-ADKs. Compared with that in FKs, the pentanal and dimethyl ketone contents of VS-ADKs and AS-ADKs exhibited a dramatic increase (p < 0.05). By contrast, the change in ethanol dimer tended to decrease (p < 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly showed that the samples, which were distributed in a separate space could be well-distinguished. Furthermore, the similarity of different processed kumquats and their corresponding volatile components was demonstrated via heat map clustering analysis. The results confirmed the potential of HS–GC–IMS-based approaches to evaluate processed kumquats with various volatile profiles.